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Outcomes and Standards

Ability-Based Outcomes

The Raabe College of Pharmacy Mission Statement

The Ohio Northern University Raabe College of Pharmacy is committed to:

  • Preparing students to enter the practice of pharmacy with the knowledge base and skills required to provide pharmacist-delivered patient care and effectively contribute to the profession.  Inherent to the fulfillment of this commitment, students will be provided with the ability to develop problem-solving and life-long learning skills which will facilitate their scholarly achievement. As an entry-level program, this commitment also includes assuring the quality of the basic science curriculum and providing a General Education program that facilitates the development of well-rounded individuals with the values necessary to serve society;
  • Contributing to the knowledge base of the practice of pharmacy, pharmacy education, and the scientific disciplines represented by its faculty. Also, the College will  encourage, and provide opportunities for, student participation in these endeavors;
  • Providing information, support and services to students, colleagues, the profession of pharmacy, other health care disciplines, and the university community at large, consistent with the expertise of its faculty. Also, the College will encourage and provide opportunities for students to perform similar services.

The Raabe College of Pharmacy Practice Foundations1

 

Pharmacists are vital members of the health care system and are able to:

  • Provide patient care in cooperation with patients, prescribers and other health care providers.
  • Manage and use resources of the health care system, in cooperation with patients, prescribers and other health care providers.
  • Promote health improvement, wellness, and disease prevention in cooperation with patients, prescribers and other health care providers.

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1 Adapted from the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards (12), July 2007.
 

The Raabe College of Pharmacy General Ability Based Outcomes2,3

  1.  Conceptual Competence:  The ONU pharmacist shall understand the foundations of the pharmacy profession and its position in health care.
  2. Scientific Competence:  The ONU pharmacist shall comprehend the scientific method and its use in scientific discoveries.
  3. Mathematical Competence:  The ONU pharmacist shall use mathematical variables to analyze physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic phenomena.
  4. Communication Competence:  The ONU pharmacist shall appropriately inform, educate and motivate using a variety of methods and media with clarity, sensitivity, and accuracy.
  5. Critical thinking and decision making abilities:  The ONU pharmacist shall acquire, evaluate, synthesize and apply information, knowledge and processes relevant to the solution of an identified problem and make sound decisions.
  6. Social Awareness:  The ONU pharmacist shall demonstrate the ability to place health care and professional issues within appropriate historical, cultural, social, economic, scientific, political and philosophical frameworks, and demonstrate sensitivity and tolerance within a culturally diverse society.
  7. Professional Conduct and Demeanor:  The ONU pharmacist acts ethically and responsibly, with integrity, compassion, empathy, and respect.  The ONU pharmacist accurately self-assesses behaviors and conduct, and seeks, accepts and applies constructive feedback.
  8. Leadership, Innovation and Advocacy:  The ONU pharmacist initiates or contributes to positive change on behalf of patients and the profession.

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2Adapted from ACPE CAPE Advisory Panel on Educational Outcomes, November 1998.
3Adapted from A Background Paper II:  Entry-Level Curricular Outcomes, Curricular Content and Educational Process, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 57:377-385; Winter 1993.

 

The Raabe College of Pharmacy Professional Ability Based Outcomes


I. Provide patient care in cooperation with patients, prescribers and other health care providers.

  1. Develop and implement population-specific, evidence-based pharmacists directed patient care programs
    1. Participate in the development of medication use criteria.
    2. Conduct, analyze and document medication use reviews.
    3. Identify and use risk reduction strategies.
    4. Interpret epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data relevant to specific diseases and their management.
  2. Formulate, evaluate and implement appropriate patient or drug-related information that will generate a patient care plan.
    1. Take a patient health history, including medication history.
    2. Identify patient attitudes toward taking medications.
    3. Assess patient adherence.
    4. Identify, manage and address adverse drug reactions, including drug interactions with food, laboratory values, and pharmacogenetics variables.
    5. Identify barriers (cultural sensitivity/diversity) to health care for a patient.
    6. Determine clinical relevance of patient drug allergy and distinguish from drug intolerance.
    7. Evaluate laboratory test results and generate and interpret pharmacokinetic data.
    8. Retrieve, evaluate and apply current disease state information in the delivery of pharmaceutical care.
    9. Retrieve, evaluate and apply current drug information and evidence-based medicine in the delivery of pharmaceutical care.
    10. Evaluate signs of potential indicators of drug misuse, abuse, therapeutic success or failure.
    11. Documentation of  B1 through B10.
  3. Work with the prescribers and other health care providers to evaluate, develop and implement a patient care plan.
    1. Communicate clearly, accurately, and knowledgeably with patients, caregivers, prescribers and other health care providers in appropriate verbal, nonverbal and written communications.
    2. Triage patients to appropriate health care providers.
    3. Assess the patients’ health literacy and the effectiveness of health communication strategy:
      1. Evaluate patient and caregiver understanding of the patient care plan.
      2. Appraise patient and caregiver skill in medical product use.
      3. Assess patient and caregiver participation in the patient care plan.
      4. Modify health communication strategy as needed.
    4. Empower the patient and caregiver to be active partners in the patient care plan.
    5. Provide counseling on the selection and use of non-prescription medications and complementary medicine products.
    6. Asess patient response to therapy and make appropriate recommendation.
    7. Assure safe and accurate preparation, dispensing and administration of medications:
      1. Read and interpret written prescriptions.
      2. Receive and transcribe verbal prescription orders.
      3. Recognize when a prescription falls outside the usual dose range.
      4. Determine whether a medication order should be filled.
      5. Recommend a course of action when a medication order should not or cannot be filled.
      6. Perform calculations required to compound, dispense, and administer medication.
      7. Select medications that promote safe and effective use.
      8. Prepare and compound extemporaneous preparations and sterile products.
      9. Prepare, package, and label a dosage form according to state and federal laws.
  4. Demonstrate professional attitudes and behaviors.
    1. Act with honesty and integrity in all professional matters.
    2. Establish and maintain covenantal relationships with patients.
    3. Act in the best interest of the patient in a caring, compassionate, and confidential manner.
    4. Respect the autonomy and dignity of each patient.
    5. Demonstrate an ongoing commitment to maintaining professional competence and life-long learning.
    6. Respect the value and abilities of others.
    7. Serve individual, community and societal needs.
    8. Provide patient care in accordance with legal, ethical, social, economic, and professional guidelines.

II. Manage and use resources of the health care system, in cooperation with patients, prescribers and other health care providers.

  1. Select resources that will accurately and efficiently provide drug and health information.
  2. Identify relevant monographs through a well-designed literature search.
  3. Participate in the management and use of health care resources within health care systems.
    1. Identify the key features of private and public payers of health care:
      1. Describe benefits provided by third party payers. Medicare and Medicaid.
      2. Understand the roles of state and federal governments in financing , administering, and regulating health care.
      3. Educate patients on the principles of health insurance and managed health care programs.
      4. Differentiate between insuring health and managing health care.

III. Promote health improvement, wellness, and disease prevention in cooperation with patients, prescribers and other health care providers.

  1. Define and assess the health status of individuals and populations, including determinants of health and illness, factors contributing to health promotion and disease prevention, factors influencing the use of health services, and epidemiology of diseases.
  2. Formulate and implement strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and programs for preventive health care and disease detection.
    1. Define the role of pharmacists in addressing public health issues.
    2. Anticipate and consider social, economic, and cultural issues.
    3. Provide public health-related services and educational material tailored to the needs of patients, caregivers, and other health care providers.
  3. Provide a healthy lifestyle, including the appropriate use of screening tools and immunizations.