Using a 2 x 2 within-subjects design, the present study examined whether effectiveness rating of an anti-smoking commercial and a military recruitment commercial would vary depending on whether the commercials were framed with an emotional or a rational appeal. Thirty-two undergraduates (11 male and 21 female) participated in the study. Results indicated a main effect of framing of commercial, but no main effect of the focus of the commercial. Specifically, emotionally-framed commercials were found to be significantly more effective than rationally-framed commercials. An interaction was also found indicating that when a rational framing is used, anti-smoking commercials are rated as significantly more effective than military recruitment commercials, while no such difference in effectiveness occurs when the commercials are emotionally-framed. These findings indicate that emotionally framed messages play a role in the success of the persuasive techniques used in television commercials.
Psychology, Sociology and Criminal Justice Research
120 participants from a small, private Midwestern university participated in a 2 X 2 between subjects
design with Audience Response System technology (implemented or not implemented) and discipline
(chemistry or psychology) as independent variables. Average quiz performance and exam
performance over a 10 week course were assessed. No main effect of ARS technology use was found,
indicating students’ performance on quizzes or exams was not improved by the ARS technology. In
addition, no interaction between ARS technology and discipline was found, indicating that the
effectiveness of the ARS technology did not vary with discipline. Despite no difference in student
learning outcomes, students perception of the ARS technology was that it was fun and effective at
helping them learn the material.
Most theories in our world rest upon the assumption that humans have an innate will to live. Suicidal terrorism, then, is a phenomenon which goes against rational thought. Suicidal terrorism is different than other forms of terrorism because the individual uses themselves, and their life, as a weapon against others. This paper gives possible explanations for this event through the work of social psychologists Tom Pyszczynski, Sheldon Solomon and Jeff Greenberg known as Terror Management Theory. Terror Management Theory theorizes that all human action is a result of death thought awareness and is the human attempt to manage this fear of the unknown. Though an action with an end result suicide may seem counter productive to managing the fear of death, the promise of an afterlife and the belonging to something larger than oneself does help to manage the anxiety of death. The work of Emile Durkheim is compared to Terror Management Theory. Durkheim’s theory is also effective in helping explain further why a lack of integration, or an abundance of integration could cause the occurrence of suicide bombings.
In 2003, a controversy arose around the Dixie Chicks after the group criticized President Bush during a concert in England, which caused a tremendous backlash against the group, including death threats. The following year, punk-rock band Green Day made a highly political album that won the Grammy for Best Rock Album. While these situations had opposite outcomes, both are part of the same phenomenon: non-political figures, musicians, make political statements that elicit a strong response from the population at large. This paper explores these examples, as well as others, using Pareto’s theory of elites and logical action and Durkheim’s collective consciousness and the sacred to explore why people care and get upset about what musicians say regarding politics, ultimately arguing that the response is due to social forces, arising from the general consensus that musicians are “special.”
The importance of technology, more specifically computers, in everyday life has become increasingly apparent. The rise of the Internet has added new and easier ways to research, communicate, shop, and entertain. Where individuals were once content to spend time writing an actual letter or sit around the table and play cards and board games, technology has moved to e-mail and computer games that they can have with the click of a button. However with this increase in technology, addiction to the internet and more specifically, video games, has been born and waved a red flag in society. The appearance of games such as Everquest® has given people the ability to create a virtual self and choose how they want to be portrayed physically and socially. An investigation must be made into what causes these individuals to wish to recreate themselves and what factors have a role in how they portray their virtual “self”.
The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Student
“The Rhetoric of Dating” is a pilot study designed to examine the words college students use to describe their relationships, dating and sexual activity. It serves as a test pattern for a larger study to determine what improvements need to be made before conducting the large-scale survey. The final study that results will provide sociologists and sexologists with a concrete vocabulary to use in interviewing subjects about their sexual and dating habits.
The sexual abuse of children has received a tremendous amount of attention in recent years. Accordingly, both the criminal justice and mental health systems deal with child molesters. Since much of the public concerns revolve around the potential dangerousness of any given child molester, practitioners are frequently responsible for making assessments regarding these risks. Ideally, this should be based on the research on recidivism. However, studies on this topic frequently produce conflicting and confusing results. This paper reviews the relevant literature to summarize the problems facing many recidivism studies. Considering these limitations, estimates of baseline recidivism rates and risk factors for recidivism are discussed.
Binge drinking is a common problem on most college campuses. It is defined as consuming 5 or more alcoholic beverages in a sitting for males and 4 or more for females. In a national study of college students, Wechsler found that college freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors have similar rates of binge drinking. This could be due to students establishing a drinking pattern during their first year of college and maintaining it throughout the duration of their college experience. Therefore...
This paper reports the finding from a study that examined the relationship between social bond variables and drunk driving in a sample of university students. A questionnaire containing indicators representing social bond variables, as well as a measure of drunk driving was administered to a sample of 1459 college students. The results of this study provide mixed support for social bond theory. On the one hand, commitment to conventional activities and acceptance of conventional beliefs were negatively related to drunk driving. On the other hand, neither the involvement component nor the attachment component was related to drinking and driving in the manner predicted by social bond theory.