This 2 x 2 between-subjects design investigated the effectiveness of both humor and celebrity endorsement presence in print advertisements. Eighty five undergraduate college students were distributed simulated magazines that contained two articles and two print advertisements. While one print advertisement acted as a distracter, in the other, type of endorser (celebrity or non-celebrity) and type of ad (humorous or non-humorous) were manipulated. After the participants were given time to view the articles and print advertisements, they answered a questionnaire that contained 7-point scales that measured attitude towards the advertisement and purchase intent. Attitude towards the print advertisement was based on two different scales, one measuring whether the participants found the advertisement likable or dislikable and the other measuring whether the participants found the advertisement interesting or not interesting. It was hypothesized that the advertisement containing both humor and celebrity endorsement would produce the highest rating on all three scales. The results indicated that there was a significant main effect for celebrity endorsement for attitude towards the print advertisement, yet there was no significant main effect for celebrity endorsement for purchase intent. The results showed no significant effect of an interaction between celebrity endorsement and humor and showed no significant main effect of the presence of humor.
Psychology, Sociology and Criminal Justice Research
The Effect of Humor and Celebrity Endorsement on Attitude toward an Advertisement and Purchase Intent
The Effects of Celebrity Images and Environmental Context on Male Body-Esteem, Anxiety, and Depression
This study examined the effects of slide show type (all male or all female celebrity images) and context of the environment (all male or mixed gender) on male’s body image, anxiety and depression. Forty-eight male participants completed measures of the dependent variables after watching a slide show of 25 all male or all female celebrity photos from People Magazine. The results suggested that males viewing the all female ideal celebrity images scored significantly higher in their levels of depression compared to viewing the ideal male celebrity images, suggesting that males experience more significant psychological distress by viewing ideal celebrity images of the opposite sex than those of the same sex.
You Are Now Listed as “In a Relationship” with Facebook: Examination of the Detrimental Effects of Social Networking Sites on Personal and Relational Development
This paper examines the potentially harmful effects of social networking websites on the development and sustainability of individual identities and interpersonal relationships. As the cultural obsession with internet use grows, it becomes more and more important to examine and analyze how this phenomenon coincides with and contradicts traditional methods of developing personal identities and forming interpersonal relationships with others. The theories of classical sociologists Charles Horton Cooley and Emile Durkheim are used in attempt to explain how social networking websites can hinder traditional methods of self and relational development. Cooley’s looking-glass self is used to describe the ways in which individuals dependent on social networking sites can suffer due to the modification or loss of their personal identities. Cooley’s focus on primary groups is also used to highlight the importance of traditional relationship building through intimate, face-to-face interactions that prepare individuals to enter and fit into society. Durkheim’s focus on the collective conscience, anomie, and suicide provide insight into the potentially harmful effects of social networking websites. With evidence of their detrimental effects on people, the harm these websites may cause cannot be ignored; instead, they need to be examined and explained to prevent future internet users from succumbing to their harmful effects.
Credentialism is an increasingly popular phenomenon in today’s society. The effects are seen most of all in the development and achievements of today’s higher educational system. Students are feeling more stress and pressure than ever before to attend school beyond college and to obtain a graduate degree. With increasing requirements, and a PhD the current highest degree one can earn, this phenomenon raises the question that asks where can society go from here. How much higher can society raise the bar, and how will this affect those competing in the higher educational system. With the current demands and consistent goal-oriented competition, it can be argued that due to credentialism, education has lost some of its value. For students today, the value of learning has taken a back seat to the more importantly stressed idea of collecting as many credentials as possible. Therefore, credentialism in higher education is a relevant and important phenomenon to analyze and address using social theory. This paper traces a brief history of the development of credentialism, specifically in education, and explains this phenomenon through the theories of two social theorists, Karl Marx and Robert Ezra Park. Both theories address how credentialism in higher education develops, how it decreases the value of learning, and the possible solutions that theoretically, society may one day follow.
Sexual identity has become an increasingly prominent topic in popular culture lately. From a hit song about girl-on-girl kissing to the record number of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender characters on television this season, according to the Gay & Lesbian Alliance against Defamation, exploration of sexual identity is becoming more and more accepted in society. Despite this increased awareness of sexual diversity in the media, many people do not begin exploring their own sexuality until adolescence or later, giving sexual identity less time to develop in a person. Thus, it is quite common for people to still be unsure of their sexual identity during early and even middle adulthood. Due to the complexity of sexual identity development and discovery, the field of research in sexual identity is varied. In this paper I explore two opposing theories on the topic, essentialism and social construction. Essentialism assumes an innate, biological source of sexual orientation, whereas social construction argues that sexual orientation is constructed based on society. I give the background of and evaluate both of these theories and then discuss any ways in which the two might be synthesized. Finally, I discuss Goffman’s theory of stigma in light of sexual orientation and these two theories.
Reality television is a phenomenon that has grown exponentially in the past few years and attracts a multitude of fans. Since beginning in 1948 with Candid Camera (what many consider the “first” reality television show), reality television has grown in popularity. The success of the show depends on the amount of support that it can gain from the viewers, and it seems extraordinary that some of these shows would survive past one season. Many of the programs such as Big Brother and Rock of Love with Bret Michaels really should not hold the viewers attention; a lot of the time the contestants are doing nothing more than sitting around. What attracts people to these shows? Why do people care about reality television, and continue to watch episode after episode? Theories postulated by Robert Park and Max Weber can be applied to the phenomenon of reality television in an attempt to explain why the viewers care about these shows as much as they do. Robert Park’s theories of social control and collective behavior, the societal processes of competition, conflict, accommodation, and assimilation, and the self and the social role can be used to explain the trend of viewers drawn in by reality television. Likewise, the theories behind legal-rational authority and charismatic authority from Max Weber can be used in conjunction with a discussion of power, including the fleeting and unstable nature of this power, in order to explain why society tends to be attracted to reality television shows.
Due to technological advances, consumer fraud is becoming a borderless crime. This paper examines Nigerian 419 or advanced fee fraud, where criminals on the margins of the global economy are targeting the citizenry of more prosperous nations. The costs and consequences of this phenomenon, as well as various social control efforts are considered. Possible theoretical explanations for 419 fraud are suggested. This phenomenon is explored in the context of postmodern society, and possible directions for future research are presented.
Using a 2 x 2 within-subjects design, the present study examined whether effectiveness rating of an anti-smoking commercial and a military recruitment commercial would vary depending on whether the commercials were framed with an emotional or a rational appeal. Thirty-two undergraduates (11 male and 21 female) participated in the study. Results indicated a main effect of framing of commercial, but no main effect of the focus of the commercial. Specifically, emotionally-framed commercials were found to be significantly more effective than rationally-framed commercials. An interaction was also found indicating that when a rational framing is used, anti-smoking commercials are rated as significantly more effective than military recruitment commercials, while no such difference in effectiveness occurs when the commercials are emotionally-framed. These findings indicate that emotionally framed messages play a role in the success of the persuasive techniques used in television commercials.
120 participants from a small, private Midwestern university participated in a 2 X 2 between subjects
design with Audience Response System technology (implemented or not implemented) and discipline
(chemistry or psychology) as independent variables. Average quiz performance and exam
performance over a 10 week course were assessed. No main effect of ARS technology use was found,
indicating students’ performance on quizzes or exams was not improved by the ARS technology. In
addition, no interaction between ARS technology and discipline was found, indicating that the
effectiveness of the ARS technology did not vary with discipline. Despite no difference in student
learning outcomes, students perception of the ARS technology was that it was fun and effective at
helping them learn the material.
Most theories in our world rest upon the assumption that humans have an innate will to live. Suicidal terrorism, then, is a phenomenon which goes against rational thought. Suicidal terrorism is different than other forms of terrorism because the individual uses themselves, and their life, as a weapon against others. This paper gives possible explanations for this event through the work of social psychologists Tom Pyszczynski, Sheldon Solomon and Jeff Greenberg known as Terror Management Theory. Terror Management Theory theorizes that all human action is a result of death thought awareness and is the human attempt to manage this fear of the unknown. Though an action with an end result suicide may seem counter productive to managing the fear of death, the promise of an afterlife and the belonging to something larger than oneself does help to manage the anxiety of death. The work of Emile Durkheim is compared to Terror Management Theory. Durkheim’s theory is also effective in helping explain further why a lack of integration, or an abundance of integration could cause the occurrence of suicide bombings.