The link between sleep and mood disorders is well established. Moreover, substance abuse has been associated with poor sleep and depression. In a normative high school population it has been found that fewer hours of sleep is associated with increased depressive symptoms and that sleep problems are associated with substance use. The current study aims to investigate the link between the use of alcohol or drugs as a sleep aid with depressive symptomology, internalizing, and emotional problems among a population of at-risk adolescents. Secondary analyses were done using a database of adolescents (n=66), aged 12-18, who were referred to a juvenile court for legal and/or behavioral problems. Analysis was done to investigate whether participants who reported using alcohol or drugs to help them sleep differed on their report of emotional problems, internal mental distress, or depressive symptomology. Adolescents using alcohol or drugs as a sleep aid are at risk for emotional problems, internal mental distress, and depressive symptoms. Though the causality of these variables is unclear, the current study suggests that adolescents, particularly those engaging in potentially illegal behaviors, might benefit from a multi-pronged treatment plan including mental health services and sleep education.
Psychology, Sociology and Criminal Justice Research
The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of the General Theory of Crime
(Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990) to victimization in Internet job scams involving money mules. The six basic characteristics of low self-control are used to analyze victimization. A preliminary qualitative analysis of statements made by individuals who have fallen victim to these Internet scams is reported. These results suggest that preference for simple tasks, paired with risk seeking and impulsive behaviors are potential causes of this phenomenon. Implications of the findings for the broader phenomenon of Internet fraud victimization are discussed.
Political science research establishes party identification as a stable “unmoved mover” which acts as the lens through which we view the world. However, the significance of party identification on opinion formation in college students is not as well known. Critics often condemn party identification as an obstacle to knowledge and uphold Independents as the wise voter. Further, many speculate that since Ohio Northern is located in a Republican area, students are overwhelmingly Republican. We convenience group sampled 232 students with a 34 question survey to determine ONU’s political affiliation, political opinions and the validity of the above claims. We found that students are primarily Republican, although not to the level students speculated, along with statistically significant differences between party groups. Further, our research shows that sampled Republicans, not Democrats, demonstrated correlations on political issues and as a whole more opinionated. However, Republicans were more likely to form opinions that were not logically consistent to each other. Independents on the other hand proved more likely than Democrats but less likely than Republicans to form opinion pairs, although the existing pairs were logically consistent. When applied to knowledge on current events, similar patterns emerged to demonstrate significant effects of party identification.
Occupy Wall Street was established as a revolt against the capitalistic society in which our world is emerged. My paper looks at OWS connection to Karl Marx' theory of class consciousness, revolution and the end result of communism, if successful. I will then compare and contrast OWS to a theorist whose focus is on NeoWeberian theory. The paper was produced through research on articles about OWS and Karl Marx. The hoped for result is to decide whether OWS will end in a communist revolt or diminish into oblivion without the proper support.
Stress Administered Immediately before Learning Reduces False Memory Production and Enhances True Memory Recall in Females
Previous research has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that stress administered immediately prior to learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words
(e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated “distractor” words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related “critical lure” words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings suggest that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and have important implications for eyewitness testimony by implying that such testimony may be more accurate when assessed shortly after the witnessed event.
Professional wrestling has become a noticeable force in not only national media but also global media. As large and expansive as the fan-base is, the question remains as to what makes professional wrestling so appealing. In order to find an explanation, the works and writings of two sociological theorists were studied (one theorist from the "classical" era and one from the "contemporary" era). The works of Emile Durkheim were chosen to take the classical view on the subject. In particular, his theory on the elementary forms of religious life was used to explain how people are drawn to wrestling as individuals and as a group. Then, a theorist from the contemporary era of sociology was chosen to given a modern explanation as to why people are drawn to professional wrestling.
Large amounts of research have been done on the negative effects tattoos play on first impressions and perceptions of personalities. However, not much has been done to investigate the personality traits that employers desire in potential employees and the effect tattoos have on the perception of these potential employees. This study looked at people's perceptions of tattooed individuals versus non-tattooed individuals with differing careers. Participants were shown a picture of a man and his wife on a screen while being read a short story. Using a 2 x 2 between groups study, the occupation of the man (lawyer/mechanic) as well as the presence of a tattoo (presence/absence) were changed. After the story, participants were asked to recall as much information as possible from the story and picture. Next, the participants rated the male on nine personality traits considered desirable in a potential employee using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “not at all” to “very.” The total score served as the dependent variable. The first hypothesis was supported and indicated that the presence of a tattoo negatively affects employability. However, there was not a significant difference of employability between the lawyer and the mechanic. The hypothesized interaction between the tattoo presence or absence and the occupation type was not significant.
Recently throughout the United States there has been talk and action trying to limit gun rights based in different interpretations of the Second Amendment. This is being done from city halls such as in Chicago where a city wide gun ban was attempted to the White House where the President is attempting to enact a nationwide ban on certain weapons. Actions such as these are taking guns away from those citizens who hold guns legally while nothing can be done to stop the illegal purchasing of firearms. Some politicians feel that taking guns away from everyone is the only way to stop tragic shootings which have occurred in places such as Newtown, CT, or Aurora, CO. Politicians are taking guns away from law abiding citizens who use them for personal protection and are declaring open season for criminals who know no one will be armed when these gun bans are enacted officially. Legal gun ownership has no effect on gun crime. As my research will show the answer is better policing strategies and less strict gun laws for law abiding citizens.
College students obtain far less sleep than is recommended and often report that environmental factors such as noisy residence halls impair the sleep they do get. Insufficient and poor quality sleep put college students at risk for suboptimal academic performance, poor neurocognitive functioning, and accidents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether increasing participant accountability and salience of personal health behaviors, including sleep, would improve sleep variables.METHODS: As part of a larger study, college students completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in addition to a battery of other health related questionnaires both at the beginning and the end of an academic term lasting 10 weeks. Participants were 34 college students enrolled at a small liberal arts college and were recruited from psychology courses. The sample was 57% female, 88% white, and was 19.74±1.05 years in age. RESULTS: Participant self-reported sleep quality, with lower scores indicating better sleep quality, improved from Time 1 (M = 1.20, SD = 0.79) to Time 2 (M = 0.97, SD = 0.58) [F (1, 32) = 4.57; p < 0.05]. Ratings of sleep disturbance, with lower scores indicating less sleep disturbance, also improved from Time 1 (M = 1.14, SD = 0.43) to Time 2 (M = 0.94, SD = 0.49) [F (1, 32) = 7.78; p < 0.05]. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that simply asking college students to report on their health behaviors over time might be sufficient to improve sleep quality and reduce sleep disturbance. Follow-up studies should include objective measures; however, utilizing personal accountability and increasing personal salience of health promoting behaviors would be a low-cost, high impact method to improve both sleep and overall health for people of all ages.