This systematic review summarizes current techniques for accessing recidivism for sexual offenders. It includes both an overview of risk assessment tools and current treatment models: Relapse Prevention, RiskNeed-Responsivity, the Self-Regulation Model, and the Good Lives Model. Studies were gathered from databases such as MEDLINE and Pubmed, as well as current books and presentations by clinicians in the field. This review suggests that the movement to an integrated, individualized approach to treatment offers the best rehabilitation of sexual offenders.
Psychology, Sociology and Criminal Justice Research
A Systematic Review of Risk Assessment Techniques for Sexual Offenders: A Proposal on Integration of Counseling Models
Classical Marxism and Communication: An Analysis Including Modern Application and Alternative Theoretical Perspectives
In modern times, revolutions in communication technology have paved the way for the exchange of ideas to become easier than ever before: through the use of technological advances in the field of wireless electronics, communication has become effortless; more people can be contacted, is now cheaper, and is now instantaneous. In order to identify how these institutions have changed the way they operate, sociological theorists attempt to observe unifying traits across a society over time, and seek to realize the balance of the properties of order and action within a society. It is for this reason that it is prominent to compare social elements to both new and old sociological theories, and one of the most significant advocates of worldwide unification in any context is theorist Karl Marx. Marx posits that a universal unification is essential to reach an ideal society, which will require worldwide communication. Therefore, it becomes necessary to observe how communication fits in Marx's theory, how it currently operates in modern society, how it could possibly be adapted or translated to work with Marx's theory, and also how both flaws in implementation and the theory itself might inhibit societal development, or how such could be improved upon.
The purpose of this research was to map out human trafficking calls in Ohio counties from the years 2010 and 2011. The data was from the Polaris Project website and was inputted into a geographical information systems database and was used to create the map. The results indicated that more populated cities and towns by larger highways and interstates had more calls placed. Implications for increasing awareness for the problem of human trafficking in Ohio.
College students often report poor sleep, which has negative implications for their everyday mood, academic performance, and overall health. The best way to improve sleep is to routinely engage in good sleep habits, such as maintaining a regular bedtime and a comfortable sleeping area. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of sleep-- 17 -specific instruction and interest in such instruction with utilization of good sleep hygiene.
Method: As part of a 15-week sleep-specific course for incoming freshmen, students completed a survey asking participants to report frequency of days they engaged in good sleep habits, such as maintain a regular bed time and avoiding caffeine, during an average week. At the beginning of the study, participants also ranked how interested they were in learning about sleep. Participants (N=20) were primarily female (n=18) and white (n=17). Results: A repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated that participants’ engagement in good sleep habits improved over the 15-week period (Mtime1=36.48, Mtime2=41.58, Mtime3=41.88, Mtime4=44.10) [F(3,17)=8.806;p=.001]. Furthermore, a repeated measures ANOVA assessing the relation between interest (categorized as low and high) and frequency of good sleep habits indicated a main effect of interest, such that those with moderate interest in sleep reported more good sleep habits (M=44.28) than those with high interest (M=39.24) [F(3, 16)=7.462;p=.002;d=2.14].
Conclusion: Participant sleep hygiene improved over the duration of the study suggesting college students, at risk for poor sleep hygiene, benefit from education about the science of sleep. Moreover, participants with moderate interest in learning about sleep reported more good sleep habits than those with high interest, suggesting that high interest participants might have pre-existing sleep difficulties, triggering their interest, but that education improves sleep habits. As universities work to improve quality of students’ lives and performance, sleep education should be considered an impactful and cost-effective intervention to implement early in students’ academic careers.
The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of the General Theory of Crime
(Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990) to victimization in Internet job scams involving money mules. The six basic characteristics of low self-control are used to analyze victimization. A preliminary qualitative analysis of statements made by individuals who have fallen victim to these Internet scams is reported. These results suggest that preference for simple tasks, paired with risk seeking and impulsive behaviors are potential causes of this phenomenon. Implications of the findings for the broader phenomenon of Internet fraud victimization are discussed.
Political science research establishes party identification as a stable “unmoved mover” which acts as the lens through which we view the world. However, the significance of party identification on opinion formation in college students is not as well known. Critics often condemn party identification as an obstacle to knowledge and uphold Independents as the wise voter. Further, many speculate that since Ohio Northern is located in a Republican area, students are overwhelmingly Republican. We convenience group sampled 232 students with a 34 question survey to determine ONU’s political affiliation, political opinions and the validity of the above claims. We found that students are primarily Republican, although not to the level students speculated, along with statistically significant differences between party groups. Further, our research shows that sampled Republicans, not Democrats, demonstrated correlations on political issues and as a whole more opinionated. However, Republicans were more likely to form opinions that were not logically consistent to each other. Independents on the other hand proved more likely than Democrats but less likely than Republicans to form opinion pairs, although the existing pairs were logically consistent. When applied to knowledge on current events, similar patterns emerged to demonstrate significant effects of party identification.
Occupy Wall Street was established as a revolt against the capitalistic society in which our world is emerged. My paper looks at OWS connection to Karl Marx' theory of class consciousness, revolution and the end result of communism, if successful. I will then compare and contrast OWS to a theorist whose focus is on NeoWeberian theory. The paper was produced through research on articles about OWS and Karl Marx. The hoped for result is to decide whether OWS will end in a communist revolt or diminish into oblivion without the proper support.
Stress Administered Immediately before Learning Reduces False Memory Production and Enhances True Memory Recall in Females
Previous research has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that stress administered immediately prior to learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words
(e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated “distractor” words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related “critical lure” words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings suggest that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and have important implications for eyewitness testimony by implying that such testimony may be more accurate when assessed shortly after the witnessed event.
Professional wrestling has become a noticeable force in not only national media but also global media. As large and expansive as the fan-base is, the question remains as to what makes professional wrestling so appealing. In order to find an explanation, the works and writings of two sociological theorists were studied (one theorist from the "classical" era and one from the "contemporary" era). The works of Emile Durkheim were chosen to take the classical view on the subject. In particular, his theory on the elementary forms of religious life was used to explain how people are drawn to wrestling as individuals and as a group. Then, a theorist from the contemporary era of sociology was chosen to given a modern explanation as to why people are drawn to professional wrestling.
Large amounts of research have been done on the negative effects tattoos play on first impressions and perceptions of personalities. However, not much has been done to investigate the personality traits that employers desire in potential employees and the effect tattoos have on the perception of these potential employees. This study looked at people's perceptions of tattooed individuals versus non-tattooed individuals with differing careers. Participants were shown a picture of a man and his wife on a screen while being read a short story. Using a 2 x 2 between groups study, the occupation of the man (lawyer/mechanic) as well as the presence of a tattoo (presence/absence) were changed. After the story, participants were asked to recall as much information as possible from the story and picture. Next, the participants rated the male on nine personality traits considered desirable in a potential employee using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “not at all” to “very.” The total score served as the dependent variable. The first hypothesis was supported and indicated that the presence of a tattoo negatively affects employability. However, there was not a significant difference of employability between the lawyer and the mechanic. The hypothesized interaction between the tattoo presence or absence and the occupation type was not significant.
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